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The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain. EFSA was established in February 2002, is based in Parma, Italy and had a budget for 2008 of €65.9 million.

The work of EFSA covers all matters with a direct or indirect impact on food and feed safety, including animal health and welfare, plant protection and plant health and nutrition. EFSA supports the European Commission, the European Parliament and EU member states in taking effective and timely risk management decisions that ensure the protection of the healthof European consumers and the safety of the food and feed chain. EFSA also communicates to the public in an open and transparent way on all matters within its remit.

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Published on: Wed, 24 May 2017 +0200

This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing aids (CEF Panel) deals with the safety assessment of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester (TDCM) for use as a co-monomer to manufacture polyester layers. The polyester layer is not intended to be in direct contact with food. The finished multilayer articles are intended for packaging aqueous, acidic and low alcoholic foodstuffs. Contact conditions include sterilisation followed by long-term storage at room temperature. No thermal degradation of TDCM is expected during the manufacture of the middle polyester layer and of the multilayer articles. Total mass transfer of the substance from a polyester monolayer was calculated to be up to 0.032 mg/kg food. Based on three in vitro genotoxicity tests, the CEF Panel considered that the substance does not raise concern for genotoxicity. When tested behind a polypropylene layer, migrating TDCM-related oligomers, their oxidation products and other related reaction products were identified. The major components were TDCM dimers. When tested behind a cyclo-olefin polymer layer, none of the TDCM-related substances were found to migrate. Based on the lack of genotoxicity of the co-monomer, the ester nature of the oligomers and on (quantitative) structure–activity relationship ((Q)SAR) analysis, the CEF Panel considered that there is no indication of genotoxicity for the oligomers, their oxidation products and other TDCM-related reaction products. The CEF Panel concluded that the substance is not of safety concern for the consumer if used as a co-monomer for the manufacture of a polyester layer intended to be used as an inner (non-food contact) layer of a multilayer material for contact with foods simulated by simulants A, B, C, D1 (as set in Regulation (EU) 10/2011). The migration of the sum of the substance and the dimers (cyclic and open chain) should not exceed 0.05 mg/kg food.


© European Food Safety Authority, 2015

Safety assessment of the substance 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester for use in food contact materials


Published on: Wed, 24 May 2017 +0200

This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel) deals with the safety assessment of the substance phosphorous acid, mixed 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl)phenyl and 4-(1,1-dimethylpropyl)phenyl triesters. The substance was evaluated by the CEF Panel in 2011 and 2,4-di-tert-amylphenol, an impurity and hydrolysis product was re-evaluated by the CEF Panel in 2015. In this application, the applicant requested an increase of the specific migration limit of the substance, currently established at 5 mg/kg food, to 10 mg/kg food, and provided new toxicological studies. Findings from three new in vitro mutagenicity assays on the oxidation products support the conclusion from 2011 that the substance and its oxidation products are not genotoxic. A new toxicokinetic study on the substance supports the consideration from the evaluation in 2011 that the substance does not raise concern for accumulation. The outcome of a new delayed neurotoxicity study on a structurally related substance, phosphorous acid, tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) ester, which was considered not to cause neurotoxicity in hens, strengthens the conclusion of the Panel in 2011 that the substance does not represent a concern for neurotoxicity. From a new two-generation reproduction toxicity study and a prenatal developmental toxicity study on the substance, a new subchronic toxicity study on its oxidation products that completes the one submitted in 2011 on the substance itself, and a 2-year oral toxicity study on the structurally related substance, the lowest NOAEL was 58–147 mg/kg bw per day (from the 2-year oral toxicity study). Compared to the requested increase of the migration limit, this gives an acceptable margin of safety of 348. Therefore, the CEF Panel concluded that an increase of the specific migration limit of the substance from 5 to 10 mg/kg food is not a safety concern for the consumer.


© European Food Safety Authority, 2015

Safety assessment of the substance phosphorous acid, mixed 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl)phenyl and 4-(1,1-dimethylpropyl)phenyl triesters for use in food contact materials


Published on: Tue, 23 May 2017 +0200

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to provide scientific assistance with respect to the risk assessment for an active substance in light of confirmatory data requested following approval in accordance with Article 6(1) of Directive 91/414/EEC and Article 6(f) of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009. In this context EFSA’s scientific views on the specific points raised during the commenting phase conducted with Member States, the applicant and EFSA on the confirmatory data and their use in the risk assessment for terpenoid blend QRD 460 are presented. The current report summarises the outcome of the consultation process organised by the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands and presents EFSA’s scientific views and conclusions on the individual comments received.


© European Food Safety Authority, 2015

Outcome of the consultation with Member States, the applicant and EFSA on the pesticide risk assessment for terpenoid blend QRD 460 in light of confirmatory data


Published on: Mon, 22 May 2017 +0200

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for vitamin K. In this Opinion, the Panel considers vitamin K to comprise both phylloquinone and menaquinones. The Panel considers that none of the biomarkers of vitamin K intake or status is suitable by itself to derive DRVs for vitamin K. Several health outcomes possibly associated with vitamin K intake were also considered but data could not be used to establish DRVs. The Panel considers that average requirements and population reference intakes for vitamin K cannot be derived for adults, infants and children, and therefore sets adequate intakes (AIs). The Panel considers that available evidence on occurrence, absorption, function and content in the body or organs of menaquinones is insufficient, and, therefore, sets AIs for phylloquinone only. Having assessed additional evidence available since 1993 in particular related to biomarkers, intake data and the factorial approach, which all are associated with considerable uncertainties, the Panel maintains the reference value proposed by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) in 1993. An AI of 1 μg phylloquinone/kg body weight per day is set for all age and sex population groups. Considering the respective reference body weights, AIs for phylloquinone are set at 70 μg/day for all adults including pregnant and lactating women, at 10 μg/day for infants aged 7–11 months, and between 12 μg/day for children aged 1–3 years and 65 μg/day for children aged 15–17 years.


© European Food Safety Authority, 2015

Dietary reference values for vitamin K


Published on: Mon, 22 May 2017 +0200

This report is linked to a first report describing the conceptual model of a honey bee colony model to assess pesticide exposure with other stressors and effects on colony dynamics. In this report, a study site design to collect data is proposed that ultimately will contribute to the corroboration and verification of the bee colony model. Four Member States representing three EU regulatory zones (Denmark, Poland, Portugal and France) were selected to ensure corroboration and verification under different climatic and environmental conditions across Europe. Data collection will be conducted at 10 sites (four in Denmark and two in Poland, Portugal and France). To reduce colony variability due to genetic differences, sister queens will be reared, and to reduce colony variability due to competition, no more than 5 colonies will be established at each site. To reduce variability due to climatic differences within each zone, sites will not be distant more than 10 km apart. Each site, also known as the resource providing unit, will be defined by a circular area of 3 km radius. In Denmark, Poland and Portugal, 2 sites will be selected based on landscape fitness attributes and relatively low presence of pesticides. In Denmark, two additional sites (one each of high and low landscape fitness) will be selected to monitor effects from exposure to flupyradifurone sprayed on 3 fields of flowering oilseed rape whereas in France, 2 sites with different levels of pesticide exposure as a result of normal farming practices (intensive versus organic) will be selected. The sampling protocol to be conducted at each site, including the colony management, sampling duration, time, frequency, variables and methods/tools are further detailed. Finally, a data model to collect data in a harmonized and consistent way, and to enable the further use of data by the modelers, was designed.


© European Food Safety Authority, 2015

Specifications for field data collection contributing to honey bee model corroboration and verification